Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of the passages there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best answer.
Questions 71 to 75 are based on the following passage.
Normally a student must attend a certain number of courses in
order to graduate, and each course which he attends gives him a credit which
he may count towards a degree. In many American universities the total work
for a degree consists of thirty-six courses, each lasting for one semester.
A typical course consists of three classes per week for fifteen weeks. While
attending a university a student will probably attend four or five courses during
each semester. Normally a student would expect to take four years attending
two semesters each year. It is possible to spread the period of work for the
degree over a longer period. It is also possible for a student to move between
one university and another during his degree course, though this is not in fact
done as a regular practice.
For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is recorded, and the record is available for the student to show to prospective employers. All this imposes pressure from the strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs. Elections to positions in student organizations arouse much enthusiasm. The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students who advise the academic authorities. Any student who is thought to have broken the rules, for example by cheating, has to appear before a student court. With the enormous numbers of students, the operation of the system does involve a certain amount of activity. A student who has held one of these positions of authority is much respected and it will be of benefit to him or her later in his or her career.
Questions 76 to 80 are based on the following passage.
Jupiter Communications, a market research firm, reports that
72% of teenagers in the United States will be online by 2003 (Stanton, 2000).
This alone indicates that students will learn and communicate electronically
more than any previous generation. At the same time, teenagers are not the only
digital learners. With the growing number of online courses, the increasing
accessibility of computers, and the increasing number of computer users, students
of all ages are taking advantage of distance learning or are using computers
to enhance the traditional classroom experience.
Two things emerge in the study of students¨attitudes toward online learning: individual situations impact students¨ perceptions of computer-based learning, and students¨ varied individual characteristics make it difficult to define their perceptions conclusively. For example, some students have their own computers, while others rely on computer labs. Such variation in computer access can result in attitudinal differences. In addition, the purpose of computer use varies. Distance education courses, for example, use computers in different ways than traditional classrooms, which can also affect students¨ perceptions. A wide variety of achievement levels and attitudes exist among both online and traditional learners. Although an illusory ＾typical learner￣ exists, a variety of factors, including students¨ gender, age, and motivation, could explain different reactions among the student population.
Questions 81 to 85 are based on the following passage.
Ever since humans have inhabited the earth, they have made
use of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts
and feelings has been in the form of oral speech. When there is a language barrier,
communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for
letters, words and ideas. Tourists, the deaf, and the mute have had to resort
to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very picturesque
and exact and can be used
internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink can be a way of flirting or indicating that the party is only joking. A nod signifies approval, while shaking the head indicates a negative reaction. Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be found in Braille (a system of raised dots read with the fingertips), signal flags, Morse code, and smoke signals. Road maps and picture signs also guide, warn, and instruct people. While verbalization is the most common form of language, other systems and techniques also express human thoughts and feelings.
Questions 86 to 90 are based on the following passage.
Some people seem to have a knack for learning languages. They
can pick up new vocabulary, master rules of grammar, and learn to write in the
new language more quickly than others. They do not seem to be any more intelligent
than others, so what makes languages so much easier for them to learn? Perhaps
if we take a close look at these successful language learners we may discover
a few of the techniques that make language learning easier for them.
First of all, successful language learners are independent learners. They do not depend on the book or the teacher. They discover their own way to learn the language. Instead of waiting for the teacher to explain, they try to find the patterns and the rules for themselves. They try to learn from their mistakes.
Successful language learning is active learning. Therefore, they do not wait for a chance to use the language. Instead they look for such a chance. They will try anything to communicate. They are not afraid to repeat what they hear and to say strange things. They are willing to make mistakes and try again. When communication is difficult, they can accept information that is inexact or incomplete. It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word.
Finally, successful language learners are learners with a purpose. They want to learn the language because they are interested in the language and the people who speak it. It is necessary for them to learn language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them. They find it easy to practice using the language regularly because they want to learn it.